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Flash Hacks
By Sham Bhangal
June 2004
More Info

HACK
#52
Create a Flash Speech Synthesizer
Synthesize speech for added flexibility with reduced bandwidth—no need to record or download predetermined sounds
[Discuss (1) | Link to this hack]

This hack uses Flash sound events to splice sound samples seamlessly together to simulate one continuous sound effect, in this case digitized speech using allophones (phonetic speech sections from which the spoken word is built up).

Using Sound.onSoundComplete Event

As soon as the Sound.onSoundComplete( ) method came out in Flash MX, I thought, "Cool! We can now easily synchronize sound accurately enough to create a sound mixing board," and sure enough, we can. The onSoundComplete event is accurate to a resolution of around 10 times the frame rate, so it's far more accurate than the keyframe/onEnterFrame-based sound controls common in Flash 5.

Like all event-driven code, onSoundComplete events might be delayed if there is a lot of other stuff going on at the same time, particularly processor-intensive animation. Overtaxing the Flash Player may result in slight hitches (delays) in playback, so go easy!

Have a look at the following code (or have a look at the file groovyLoop.fla from this book's web site):

function nextSound ( ) {
  myLoop.start( );
}
myLoop = new Sound(this);
myLoop.attachSound("groovy");
myLoop.start( );
myLoop.onSoundComplete = nextSound;

For this code to work, you need to have a sound file in the Library panel with the linkage identifier groovy. Although this is a standard requirement when using scripted sound, it is also the most likely cause of your sounds not playing if you get it wrong. Let's go through it:

  1. After importing your sound file into Flash (with File→Import→Import to Library), right-click (Windows) or &command;-click (Mac) on the sound file asset in the Library. Select Linkage from the contextual menu that appears.

  2. Check the Export for ActionScript checkbox. The Export in First Frame checkbox will become selectable and checked when you do this. Leave Export in First Frame checked.

Figure 1. The Linkage Properties window, correctly filled in to define the groovy linkage identifier

As part of the process of compiling a SWF, Flash searches through your timelines to see when all your symbols are attached. It orders content in the SWF based on this. Thus, when the SWF is streamed over the Web, the symbols are loaded into the Flash Player in the order they are required. For symbols that are attached to timelines via scripting only, Flash will not see the symbols on the timeline during SWF compilation and does not add them to the SWF by default, in the assumption that they are unused. Checking the Export for ActionScript and Export in First Frame checkboxes overrides this default, and in doing so, you are telling Flash, "I will be using this symbol via scripting, so place the symbol in the SWF."

However, this forces the Flash Player to download the sound before frame 1 is even displayed. A better approach is to place your sound in a movie clip and use the Sound.stop( ) command to prevent it from playing immediately . Then place that movie clip on the frame of the main timeline in which you want the sound exported (i.e., the frame before you need the sound). But sound preloaders are not the subject of this hack, so let's return to our previous setup.

In the earlier groovyLoop.fla listing, a sound with the linkage identifier groovy is attached to the Sound instance myLoop. When the current sound completes playing, the onSoundComplete event invokes the nextSound( ) function, which sets the sound going again. Well, so what? Surely something like the following can accomplish the same thing:

myLoop = new Sound(this);
myLoop.attachSound("groovy");
myLoop.start(0, 1000);

Here we are using the Sound.start( ) method to cause our groovy sound to repeat 1000 times, more than long enough for most people to agree that our sound goes on forever.

The magic of onSoundComplete is that it is dynamic; you can change the sound on the fly to create things like sound mixing boards, because the callback function (in this case nextSound( )) can choose a different sound to start at the end of the current one. You can thus create dynamic sound tracks on which the sound loops are changed interactively or based on other events. We won't look too deeply at that route here because it's a standard usage and not part of the hack. Instead, let's create a hack using a novel application that is fundamentally the same process.

Fonetikally Speeking

Importing some allophones into Flash was a breeze. I used Adobe Audition (a sound-editing application) to:

  • Remove any silent spaces at the beginning and end of each sample

  • Reduce any clicks at the start and end of the samples (using fade in or fade out if necessary)

  • Normalize the samples (so that all samples are at the same volume and power level)

  • Optimize the samples for web use

I ended up with a library of synthesized voice samples, each of which I gave a name and linkage identifier that were both identical to the spoken allophone, as shown in . For those not prepared to go through the same process, you can download speech_final.fla, complete with allophone sounds already imported, from this book's web site.

Figure 2. The Library, showing the sound files used for the allophones

The old 8-bit speech synthesizers did not convert conventional spelling to phonetic text. For example, to pronounce the word "knowledge," you had to ask the speech synthesizer to pronounce the phonetic equivalent, such as "nnolej" or something similar. To test my premise that Flash can be made to talk, I limited myself to writing a phonetic speech synthesizer. If you want to make a name for yourself, I'd welcome any code that converts from conventional spelling to phonetic spelling. (You might begin with technical linguistics papers you can find on the Web!)

So I tacked some string handling onto the simple sound code shown previously to create something that could take a raw allophone-based string and convert it to a simple sound queue serviced by an onSoundComplete( ) callback function:

makePhrase = function ( ) {
  if (soundCount < soundMax) {
    soundCount++;
    speech.attachSound(aPhones[soundCount]);
    speech.start( );
  } else {
    delete speech.onSoundComplete;
  }
};
function say (phrase) {
  var i = j= 0;
  aPhones = new Array( );
  for (i = 0; i < phrase.length; i++) {
    if (phrase.charAt(i) != "|") {
      aPhones[j] += phrase.charAt(i);
      if (phrase.charAt(i) == " ") {
        aphones[j] = "space";
      }
    } else {
      j++;
    }
  }
  speech.attachSound(aPhones[0]);
  speech.start( );
  speech.onSoundComplete = makePhrase;
  soundCount = 0;
  soundMax = j-1;
}
function SoundInit ( ) {
  speech = new Sound(this);
}
soundInit( );
say("h|e|ll|oo| | | | | |h|ow| |ar| |y|ouu| | | | |tt|u|d|ay|");
stop( );

Unfortunately, some of the allophone sound names are too similar to differentiate between them easily. For example, "ooo" could be written as "o o o", "o oo", or "oo o" and each variation would sound different. Instead, I used the | character as an allophone separator. The pure programmer in me would have renamed the allophones to "o1" and "o2" so the problem never occurs, but the designer in me overturned this decision because it makes manually creating the phonetic text string easier and more intuitive—"y|oo" makes more sense than "y|o2."

Assuming we just wanted to say "hello," the code works as follows. The first line sets the ball rolling. It sends our text to be spoken as a phonetically spelled string argument to the say( ) function:

say("h|e|ll|oo|");

The say( ) function creates a new array, which overwrites any existing array of the same name, so we don't need to clear data from previous function calls. Following our example through, the array of allophones is:

aPhones[0] = "h"
aPhones[1] = "e"
aPhones[2]= "ll"
aPhones[3]= "oo"

We then attach the first sound, "h", to our Sound instance and use onSoundComplete events to sequentially attach "e", "ll", and "oo" in turn as each allophone completes. This is taken care of via the makePhrase( ) function, which attaches the next sound file in our allophone sequence, aPhones, until all the entries in the array are sounded. Simple, eh? It works in a cool retro Speak & Spell digitized voice. Have a listen to speech_final.fla.

As a final hack-within-a-hack, note that I have used only one Sound instance, rather than one per sound file, which results in longer code full of too many for loops. Using one Sound instance is possible because you can use Sound.attachSound( ) as many times as you like, and it is also fast, so you can do it on the fly. This has two very cool side effects for the advanced Flash sound programmer:

  • You need to set up only one onSoundComplete callback rather than having to create one per Sound instance.

  • Flash has eight sound channels, but you cannot normally access the separate channels. Flash assigns the channels behind the scenes, but this is not always desirable if you are creating complex scripted sound control. Instead, you can create eight Sound instances (channel0 to channel7), and then reassign the sounds to be played dynamically to each via Sound.attachSound( ). This gives you your eight Sound instances in a way that relates directly to the eight sound channels.

Final Thoughts

A Flash-based speech synthesizer is so cool because it carries its own speech engine in the SWF itself; no accessibility plugins are required. Although commercial screen readers such as GW Micro's Windows-Eyes (http://www.gwmicro.com) are available, they require the Accessibility class, which requires Windows ActiveX. The Flash speech code works happily on any system that supports the Flash Player's full sound capabilities.

You can build something that doesn't even require the user to look at the screen. (I picture someone carrying around a palmtop that says, "Reminder: your dental appointment is at 10 today.") You could also add speech to devices that have small displays so that things like help text don't clutter the valuable screen real estate.

Not just useful for sight-impaired users, it's also a new Flash-to-user info stream for everyone else. How many new applications does that put on the horizon?

Aren't lasers wonderful!


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