Word 2000 in a NutshellBy Walter Glenn
1st Edition August 2000
1-56592-489-4, Order Number: 4894
488 Pages, $29.95
Tables are one of Word's most powerful features, used both to organize information and to lay out documents. A table is a container holding any number of cells arranged in rows and columns (Figure 10-1). Tables get special treatment from Word. They can be created or resized like graphics, but the cells in the table can hold text, graphics, fields, and other types of objects -- even other tables.
Figure 10-1. Viewing the special formatting marks in a table
Word uses a number of special formatting marks to identify a table and its parts:
- Move handle. Hold the pointer over the table for about two seconds to make the move and resize handles appear (shown in the top left corner of Figure 10-1). Click and drag the move handle to move the table around in the document (this works for all Word views except for Normal view).
- Resize handle. Click this handle to turn the pointer into a double-headed arrow. Drag the handle to resize the table.
- End of cell mark. Turn on the Show/Hide feature on the Standard toolbar to show end of cell and row marks on a table. End of cell marks are nonprinting characters that denote the end of a cell and are shown only by using the Show/Hide command.
- End of row mark. End of row marks are nonprinting characters that denote the end of a row and are shown only by using the Show/Hide command.
Several other marks exist, depending on the view that's used. Another common one is a black arrow that when clicked will select an entire row or column.
Many people think of tables only as a means to organize numbers and text in a quasi-spreadsheet, like the example in Figure 10-1. However, tables are also used as layout tools in all kinds of different documents. A table does not have to be as strictly defined in rows and columns as you might think. Cells can be merged or divided and can even hold other tables. Figure 10-2 shows a document created using a table to lay out the various elements.
Figure 10-2. Using tables as a layout tool
Using tables in a document can replace the need for custom tabs, columns, and even paragraph formats such as left and right indents. Tables give a document structure, whether used for a short multicolumn list beside standard paragraph text or for an entire document's layout, such as in a newsletter or resume.
Word's Table menu provides commands for creating and formatting tables, rows, columns, and cells, as well as sorting and calculation tools. Format the text in a table the same way you would format non-tabular text.
There are three basic ways to create a table in Word:
- Use Table Draw Table to create a free-form table by drawing cells with the mouse.
- Use Table Insert Table to create a table by specifying its exact dimensions in a dialog box.
- Convert normal text to a table using Table Convert Text to Table.
All of these methods are detailed later in this chapter. No matter which creation method is used, though, Word opens the Tables and Borders toolbar (Figure 10-3), which contains most of the tools used to create and manipulate tables. These tools are described here briefly for reference. Details on the tools can be found throughout the chapter, as the commands on the toolbar duplicate many of those found on the Table menu.
Figure 10-3. Using the Tables and Borders toolbar
- Draw Table. This button turns the pointer into a pencil used to draw a table in freehand. It performs the same action as the Table Draw Table command.
- Eraser. This button turns the pointer into an eraser. Click any line in the table to remove it. This is mainly used to merge cells by removing the dividers between them, an action also performed by the Table Merge Cells command, covered later in this chapter. Clicking the outside borders of a table makes them invisible in Print and Web Layout views and when the document is printed. In Normal view, "erased" outside borders appear as dim gray lines.
- Line Style. Select one of many line styles to turn the pointer into a pencil. Click on any line in the table to convert the line to the selected line style. This can also be done for larger portions of a table at once by selecting a portion of the table and using the Format Borders and Shading command, discussed in Chapter 8, Format.
- Line Weight. This button works much like the line style command described in #3. Use it to apply different line weights (thickness) to borders in a table.
- Border Color. Use this command to apply colors to table borders. The command works the same way as the Line Weight and Line Style commands.
The Line Style, Line Weight, and Border Color commands on the Tables and Borders toolbar work in conjunction. Make a selection for all three, and then apply them at once with the pencil pointer.
- Outside Border. Use this button to quickly apply Line Style, Line Weight, and Border Color settings to the outside border of the cell with the insertion point or to any selected part of the table. Use the arrow beside the button to drop down a menu used to apply the settings to different sets of borders in the table.
- Shading Color. This button opens a palette of colors. Select a color to apply it as a background shading to the cell containing the insertion point or to any selected part of the table.
- Insert Table. This button opens the Insert Table dialog box; it performs the same action as the Table Insert Table command. Click the arrow beside the button to open a menu with commands from Word's Table Insert and Table AutoFit submenus.
- Merge Cells. This button is only available if two or more cells are selected. Use it to remove the dividing borders of the cells and merge them into a single cell. This is the same as the Table Merge Cells command.
- Split Cells. Use this to split a cell into more than one cell. The command is the same as the Table Split Cells command.
- Align Top Left. Use the arrow beside this button to open a menu with several selections for aligning text horizontally and vertically within a cell. Use the button itself to apply whatever setting is made using the drop-down menu.
- Distribute Rows (Columns) Evenly. Use these commands for the table or any selected cells to make the rows or columns in the selection the same size. These are the same as the commands found on the Table AutoFit submenu.
- Table AutoFormat. This is the same as the Table AutoFormat command and opens a separate dialog used to choose from predetermined table styles.
- Change Text Direction. Toggle the direction of text in a cell between vertical and horizontal. This is useful in heading cells where the text is too long to be used horizontally (Figure 10-4).
Figure 10-4. Using vertical text in a cell
- Sort Ascending (Descending). Use the commands to sort the rows in a table in ascending or descending order. This is the same as the Table Sort command.
- AutoSum. Use this to sum the content of a range of cells. Unlike the AutoSum tool in Excel, this tool cannot be redirected -- it always sums the cells above the active cell. It will not sum numbers to the left or right of the active cell, or specific cell addresses.
TIP: Summing Cells to the Left or Right of an Active Cell
To sum the cells to the left or right of the active cell, use the Table Formula command, and change =SUM(ABOVE) to =SUM(LEFT) or =SUM(RIGHT).
Table Draw Table
The Draw Table command can only be used in Print or Web Layout views. Starting the command in Normal or Outline view changes the document to Print Layout view.
This command turns the pointer into a pencil, used to draw the box outlines of cells. Start by drawing a rectangle that becomes a table with a single cell. Once the table is drawn, split cells vertically or horizontally by drawing a line that bisects the cell (Figure 10-5). This does not require perfect accuracy. Word second-guesses you by extending drawn lines to the nearest perpendicular line. This sort of table construction lends itself well to the creation of elaborate forms and layout tables, as it provides the freedom to place cells and blocks of cells anywhere on the page.
Figure 10-5. Drawing a cell and then dividing it into smaller cells
Table Insert Table
Use the Insert Table command to create a table by specifying the exact number of columns and rows a table should start with and how the cells in the table should be sized (Figure 10-6).
Figure 10-6. Creating a table with Insert Table
- Table Size. Enter the number of rows and columns the table should have. A table can have up to 63 columns, but can have any number of rows.
- Fixed column width. Each column in the table will have the same width. Use the Auto setting to create a table that fits just within the document's margins. Use the up and down arrows to set a specific size for the columns.
- AutoFit to contents. This option creates a table with columns that are small to start, but automatically resize themselves to accommodate typed text.
- AutoFit to window. This option is used for documents that will be viewed in a web browser. It creates a table that automatically resizes itself to fit within the browser window when the window itself is resized.
- AutoFormat. This button performs the same function as the Table Table AutoFormat command, which is covered later in this chapter.
- Set as default for new tables. Any options set on the Insert Table dialog are preserved and used as the default choices each time a new table is created.
TIP: Create a Small Uniform Table Quickly
Insert a table with fixed-width rows and columns quickly using the Insert Table button on the Standard toolbar (Figure 10-7). This button opens a palette used to create tables up to four rows by five columns.
Figure 10-7. Using the Insert Table button to create a uniform table
Table Insert Columns to the Left
Use the Columns to the Left command to add columns to an existing table. Select the column in a table that the new column should appear to the left of. To insert more than one column, select an equal number of existing columns before executing the command (Figure 10-8). If a table has uniform column width before inserting extra columns, any additional columns cause the original columns to shrink so that all the columns, new and original, have the same width.
Figure 10-8. Inserting two new columns to the left of two existing columns
TIP: Select a Column by Dragging or Pointing
To select a column, drag through it with the pointer or point just above the column and, when the pointer turns to a small arrow, click. To select multiple columns, drag this arrow to the left or right to select the additional columns. Both of these selection techniques work with rows, too.
Table Insert Columns to the Right
Use the Columns to the Right command to add columns on the right side of any selected columns. This command works identically to the Columns to the Left command described previously. To insert several columns at once, select the desired number of existing columns and then issue the command.
Table Insert Rows Above
Use the Rows Above command to insert a new row above an existing row that holds the insertion point. To insert several rows at once, select that number of rows from the existing rows before issuing the command.
TIP: Insert New Rows at the End of a Table by Tabbing
Put the insertion point in the last row of the table and press Tab to quickly insert new rows at the end of a table. New rows take on any formatting applied to the existing last row.
Table Insert Rows Below
Use the Rows Below command to insert a new row below an existing row that holds the insertion point. To insert several rows at once, select that number of rows from the existing rows before issuing the command.
Table Insert Cells
The Table Insert Cells command inserts a single cell into an existing table. The command works differently depending on what is selected in the existing table and offers several options for handling existing cells (Figure 10-9).
Figure 10-9. Inserting a cell into a table
- Shift Cells Right. This option inserts a new cell to the left of whatever cell holds the insertion point or whatever range of cells is selected when the Insert Cells command is issued. Existing cells are moved to the right to accommodate the new cell. Figure 10-10 shows a table in which cells shifting to the right caused a cell to move outside the boundary of the table. Selecting a block of cells in a column would move cells in that many columns to the right. Selecting a block of cells in a row would insert the same number of cells and move existing cells to the right.
Figure 10-10. Shifting cells to the right when inserting a cell
If an entire column is selected, this command works the same as the Table Insert Columns to the Left command.
- Shift cells down. This is the default option. It inserts a new cell above whatever cell holds the insertion point or whatever range of cells is selected when the Insert Cells command is issued. Unlike the Shift Cells Right option, cells shifted downwards cannot extend past the lower boundary of the table. Word fills out any new rows that would be created.
- Insert entire row (or column). These options work the same as the Columns to the Right and Columns to the Left commands available on the Table menu, covered previously.
Table Delete Table
Delete an active table using the Table Delete Table command. The deletion applies to the entire table, including any tables nested inside the table.
Table Delete Columns
The Table Delete Columns command deletes the column containing the insertion point or a range of selected columns. The command deletes all columns containing selected cells. If a cell within the column to be deleted contains a nested table, the nested table is also deleted.
Table Delete Rows
This command deletes the row containing the insertion point or a range of selected rows. The command deletes all rows containing selected cells. If a cell within the row to be deleted contains a nested table, the nested table is also deleted.
TIP: Rearrange Table Rows in Outline View
Most people rearrange rows in a table by selecting the row, cutting it, and then pasting it where they want it to go. A much easier way is to switch to Outline view (View Outline). Each row of the table is displayed as a separate paragraph in the outline, complete with the outline bullet to the left of the margin. Drag the bullet to move the row around. A horizontal line indicates exactly where the row will be placed.
Table Delete Cells
Use the Delete Cells command to delete the cell that contains the insertion point or any range of selected cells. This command opens the Delete Cells dialog box (Figure 10-11), which presents several options for deleting the cell.
Figure 10-11. Choosing how to delete cells
The options for deleting cells are as follows:
- Shift Cells Left. This option deletes the cell and shifts all cells to the right of the deleted cell in the same row to the left. This often causes a "hole" in a table (Figure 10-12) at the end of the row.
Figure 10-12. Shifting cells left, leaving a hole at the end of the row
TIP: Delete the Contents of a Cell Instead of the Cell Itself
The Table Delete Cells command is used to delete all selected cells from the table. You can also do this by selecting the cells and pressing Backspace. This shifts remaining cells around, often causing unpredictable results. To delete just the contents of selected cells, use the Delete key instead.
- Shift cells up. This option deletes the cell and shifts up all cells below the deleted cell in the same column. Unlike the "Shift cells left" option, this option does not leave a hole in the table at the bottom of the column. Instead, Word, fills in the hole with a blank cell.
- Delete entire row (or column). Use these commands to delete the cell and the entire row or column it is in. Using these commands on a range of cells delete all of the columns or rows affected by those cells. Using this command is the same as using the Table Delete Columns or Table Delete Rows commands.
Be careful when deleting cells in a table that is not uniform. If you delete a cell that has two cells below it and use the "Shift cells up" option, only one of the cells below is shifted up and the other is deleted. It is difficult to predict which cell is shifted and which is deleted.
Table Select opens a submenu with commands for selecting a table, column, row, or individual cell based on the position of the insertion point.
Here are a few useful tips for selecting parts of a table:
- For small tables, it is often easier to use the pointer to select table elements. Select a row by clicking the left border when the pointer turns to a small black arrow. Select columns at the top border in the same way. Drag the pointer to select multiple rows or columns. For larger tables, it is usually easier to use the selection commands from the Table menu.
- To select multiple columns or rows with the selection commands, select a block of cells, one cell in each column or row.
- In a freeform table created with the Draw Table tool, a column is defined as any vertical series of stacked cells, even if the cells are not all the same width. A row is defined as any horizontal grouping of cells sharing common left and/or right sides.
TIP: Add Selection Controls to Table Context Menus
I've always found it infuriating that the context menus for table elements do not hold commands for selecting parts of the table. Fortunately, you can change this using the techniques for customizing context menus discussed in Chapter 3, Customizing Word. Just add the TableSelectCell, TableSelectColumn, TableSelectRow, and TableSelectTable commands (from the All Commands category) to the Cell, Tables, and Whole Tables context menus. While you're at it, add the commands for inserting rows and columns, as well.
Table Merge Cells
Use the Merge Cells command to turn one or more selected cells into a single cell (Figure 10-13). This command is not available unless more than one cell is selected. It is also not available when two cells of different sizes are selected in a freeform table. The content in any merged cells is stacked in separate paragraphs in the resulting merged cell.
Figure 10-13. Merging four identical cells into one large cell
Cells can also be merged by removing the border between the cells with the Eraser tool on the Tables and Borders toolbar. Be sure only to erase one border at a time, though, as dragging through multiple borders may also delete the content of some cells.
Table Split Cells
The Table Split Cells command (Figure 10-14) is used to split a cell or selected range of cells into a specified number of rows and columns. When using the command on multiple cells, the "Merge cells before split" option becomes available. This turns several cells into one large cell before subdividing that larger cell. The data is dispersed throughout the cells into only the first row of new cells created in the split instead of throughout all cells on all rows. This is a problem that Microsoft has acknowledged in Word, but has not yet fixed.
Figure 10-14. Splitting cells into additional cells of uniform width and height
When working with freehand tables and attempting to split a range of cells, the "Number of columns" or "Number of rows" options are sometimes not available, as Word has trouble splitting cells that are not of the same size. Even when the commands are available, they sometimes do not work at all or produce strange effects. When working with freehand tables, it is usually better to split any cells manually using the table drawing tool.
Table Split Table
The Table Split Table command separates a single table into two tables along a row. Tables cannot be split along a column. Splitting a table also inserts a blank line above the selected row (or row containing the active cell).
For tables created with the table drawing tool, results vary depending on the construction of the drawn table. Figure 10-15 shows the results of splitting a freehand table--the table on the left is the "before" table, the table on the right is the "after" version.
Figure 10-15. Splitting a drawn table can have unpredictable results
On the other hand, tables created with the Table Insert Table command or the Insert Table button can be predictably split into two uniform tables (Figure 10-16). Click in any cell in the row that is to become the top row in the new table and choose Table Split Table.
Figure 10-16. Splitting a table created with Insert Table into two sections
Table Table AutoFormat
Use the Table Table AutoFormat command to choose from a series of 42 different table formats (Figure 10-17). A preview is shown for any selected format in the Formats list. Specify which formats to apply and the parts of the table the formats should be applied to. In many table formats, the heading row (the first row in the table) and the first column receive a different format from the other parts of the table. Some table formats also apply special formatting to the last row or column. Uncheck any elements that should not be formatted.
Figure 10-17. Applying an AutoFormat to a table
Turn off the AutoFit option unless all table columns should be resized to fit the widest entry in the column. This is especially important when applying a format to an existing table that has already been sized correctly.
Use the "Apply special formats to" section of the Table AutoFormat dialog box to choose where any extra formatting such as bolding, double borders, or different colored shading is applied. Most formats apply this extra or "special" formatting to the column headings and/or the first row of the table, and these two options are checked by default in this section of the dialog box. If the last row or last column also needs special treatment, turn those options on as well.
If you've applied any formatting to formulas in a table (like formatting numbers as currency), the AutoFormats may remove that formatting unless the Table AutoFormat Font option is disabled.
Table AutoFit AutoFit to Contents
The AutoFit to Contents command automatically resizes all of the rows and columns in an entire table to fit the table cells' content (Figure 10-18).
Figure 10-18. Automatically adjusting table cells to fit content
No matter what is selected when the command is issued, the entire table is resized. This command has more than a one-time effect: after you AutoFit a table, typing text or adding objects to a cell will adjust the size of the columns as you work. To turn the feature off, use Table AutoFit Fixed Column Width. Once the AutoFit command has been applied to a table, it does not need to be reapplied. Any new columns added are resized automatically to fit content.
As with many other table formatting commands, this one does not work particularly well on freehand tables. Often, many cells in freehand tables are not resized to fit content at all when this command is used, especially if the cells do not fall into uniform columns.
Table AutoFit AutoFit to Window
This command is used with tables meant to be viewed in a web browser. It keeps a table sized so that it fits within the web browser window no matter how that window is resized. Note that only the table resizes, not the content of the cells. Content is wrapped to fit into smaller cells. For more on using Word's web features, see Chapter 16, Creating a Web Page.
Table AutoFit Fixed Column Width
Normally, cells widen automatically to accommodate new text or content. In many cases, this is an undesirable effect, especially if columns are already sized to meet specific requirements. To keep columns at their current width, no matter how much text is typed into (or removed from) the cells, use Table AutoFit Fixed Column Width.
This command does not prevent the manual resizing of columns or the application of AutoFit from the Table AutoFormat dialog box. Any commands that typically result in changes in column width (other than typing into the cells) continue to work on columns to which the Fixed Column Width command has been applied.
Table AutoFit Distribute Rows Evenly
The Table AutoFit Distribute Rows Evenly command converts all rows in an active table (or all selected rows) to a consistent height. This can be very useful in giving a uniform look to a freehand table.
If this command is applied to a freehand table that does not have an equal number of cells in each row, some cells become taller or shorter than others as they are stretched to accommodate adjoining cells.
Typing content into cells after issuing the Distribute Rows Evenly command usually increases cell dimensions. You must reissue the command to keep rows evenly spaced.
Table AutoFit Distribute Columns Evenly
Create equally spaced columns across the width of a entire table (or any selected columns) with the Table AutoFit Distribute Columns Evenly command. Like the Distribute Rows Evenly command, this command does not work well on freehand tables. If not all of columns have an equal number of cells in them, some cells may become wider or narrower than others as Word attempts to make all of the columns equal.
Typing content into cells after issuing the Distribute Columns Evenly command usually increases cell dimensions. You must reissue the command to keep columns evenly spaced.
Table Heading Rows Repeat
If a table spans more than one page, it may be useful to repeat column headings at the top of each page of the table. To do this, select the heading row and choose Table Heading Rows Repeat. Figure 10-19 shows a table's headings repeated at the top of the second page of a table. As a table grows to span more pages, the heading rows continue to appear at the top of any new pages exactly as they do in the designated header row.
Figure 10-19. Repeating a table's headings at the top of each page
You cannot edit the repeated header rows. To format them or change their content, change the original designated header row content and the repeated headers will follow suit.
Choose Table Heading Rows Repeat again to turn the feature off. As soon as you click back inside the table, the heading rows will disappear from second and subsequent pages.
Table Convert Text to Table
The Text to Table command converts virtually any text to a table. Anything from a tabbed list to a series of paragraphs can be turned into a table by determining the number of columns and rows, applying an AutoFormat (if desired), and selecting the delimiter (a character or code that tells Word where to break the text to place it in individual cells).
The Convert Text to Table dialog (Figure 10-20) works pretty much like the Insert Table dialog used to create a new table. First, choose the number of columns and rows for the new table. Next, specify how the columns should be sized. These options are covered earlier in the chapter. Finally, choose the type of character that delimits, or separates, the items in the text that should be placed in individual cells. For example, select commas and a new cell is created for each comma in the original text. Use the Other option to enter a custom delimiter.
Figure 10-20. Converting text to a table
The most common text-to-table conversion involves tabbed text. Converting the tabbed list in Figure 10-21 creates a three-column, four-row table.
Figure 10-21. Tabbed lists are easily converted to tables
TIP: Show Hidden Formatting Before Converting Text to a Table
Before using either of the Convert submenu's commands, it is a good idea to use the Show/Hide button on the Standard toolbar to display hard returns, tabs, spaces, and page break codes. This helps you select the text to convert more precisely and choose the best delimiter for the job.
Table Convert Table to Text
The Table to Text command (Figure 10-22) converts an existing table to text, using a delimiter character to separate the content of individual cells. For example, delimiting the content with tabs usually creates a list with tabbed columns.
Figure 10-22. Converting a table to non-tabular text
If the table contains a nested table, the "Convert nested tables" option becomes available in the Convert Table to Text dialog box and is enabled by default. If the chosen delimiter is a paragraph mark, the "Convert nested tables" option can be disabled. With commas, tabs, and custom delimiters, it cannot be disabled.
When nested table is converted, the contents of the cells in the nested table are placed right along with the contents of cells in the main table. When nested tables are not converted, they appear as standalone tables within the text from the main table. Nested tables are delimited just like the contents of any other cells in the main table.
Many tables are designed to look (and perhaps operate) like mini-databases. A list of records, one in each row, topped by a row of column headings that identify the components of each row (functioning as database fields) is a typical arrangement. The Table Sort command (Figure 10-23) sorts rows by up to three column headings within a table.
Figure 10-23. Sorting the rows of data in a table
Click the first Sort by list box and choose the column heading on which to sort a table's rows. Once the first Sort by box is set, use the others to apply additional levels of sorting. For example, you could sort a list of contacts first by state and then by city. For each sort performed, choose Ascending for an alphabetical sort or Descending for a reverse alphabetical sort.
If the lists display columns as Column 1, Column 2, etc., click the Header row option at the bottom of the dialog box. This tells Word to use the contents of the cells on the top row of the table for sorting. This also tells Word not to include the header row in the actual sort.
The Options button on the Sort dialog opens a separate dialog with additional options. Use it to:
- Set delimiters when sorting non-tabular text (see Tip # 124)
- Set a language for the sort
- Make capitalized words come before lowercased words in a sort
- Sort only a selected column instead of the whole table
TIP: Use Table Sort on Non-Tabular Text
The Table Sort command can sort tabbed columns of text and lists of items as well as tables. For tabbed columns, the first line in the text is interpreted as the header row. To further define the sort's parameters for non-table text, click the Options button in the Sort dialog box to choose the delimiter that separates non-table text.
Use the Formula command to perform calculations on cells with numbers. For example, a column of numbers can be summed and the total presented at the bottom of the table. Place the insertion point in the cell that should contain the results of the formula and choose Table Formula (Figure 10-24).
Figure 10-24. Constructing formulas that reference cells in a table
Word always suggests a formula based on the position of the active cell when the command is issued. This formula is rarely what is really needed. Just erase it to build your own. All formulas must start with an equals sign. After this, formulas are composed of three parts:
- Common mathematical operators such as +, -, *, and /.
- Special procedures provided by Word. Functions always appear outside parentheses. Examples of common functions are SUM, which is used to add specified values together, AVERAGE, which calculates the average of specified values, and MIN, which calculates the smallest of any specified values. Enter the name of a function directly into the Formula box or choose a function from the Paste Function list. Choosing from the list enters the value in the Formula box at the insertion point.
- Simple numbers or the data in specific cells in a table. Values that are acted on by functions appear inside parentheses to the right of the function. For example, in the formula =SUM(5,8,9), the numbers five, eight, and nine are the values acted on by the SUM function.
A value can be more than just a number. It can also reference a specific cell in the active table or in any table in the document. Cells are typically referred to by their column and row position. Columns are lettered from left to right and rows are numbered from top to bottom. Thus, the cell in the third row of the third column would be C3. Note that cell references like this are always absolute. Inserting rows or columns later would mess up an existing formula.
Cells can be referenced by themselves or as part of a range. The formula =SUM(B2,C3,C8) would calculate the sum of the three cells listed inside the parentheses. Reference a range of cells by separating the first and last cell with a colon. For example, the formula =SUM(B2:C8) would calculate the sum of all of the cells between B2 and C8. Note that the range can span both columns and rows. Cells in a range are read from left to right. In addition, Word stops the range calculation as soon as it encounters any blank cell, so make sure no cells in a range are blank before performing a calculation.
TIP: Specify a Whole Row or Column in a Formula Range
To specify an entire row or column in a range, use the same row or column name on both sides of the colon in a formula. For example, C:C specifies the entire C column. 5:5 specifies the whole fifth row.
Mark frequently used ranges with a bookmark by selecting the group of cells in the table and using the Insert Bookmark command. The name that you give the bookmark appears in the Paste Bookmark list on the Formula dialog for easy reference.
Formulas can also include references to other tables in the same Word document. First, bookmark the table to reference by selecting the entire table and using the Insert Bookmark command. When creating the formula in a cell in another table, reference the bookmarked table and the cells in the formula. For example, the formula =SUM(Table1 C4:E4) would calculate the sum of the cells between C4 and E4 in the table bookmarked "Table 1."
Table Hide/Show Gridlines
Table gridlines are thin gray lines displayed by default so that it is easier to see where rows and columns are in tables where borders are not displayed. When gridlines are hidden, the menu command changes to Show Gridlines. Many users find gridlines distracting while working with tables where borders will not be shown in the final product. Note that the Hide/Show Gridlines command affects an entire document, not just a single table, so a table need not be selected to use the command.
Table Table Properties
The Table Properties dialog box shows the current settings for the selected table. These settings appear as options in four different tabs: Table, Row, Column, and Cell. Note that many of the properties found on the four tabs can also be accessed on a context menu by right-clicking the appropriate table element in the document.
The Table Tab
Use the Table tab (Figure 10-25) to select a preferred width for the table and a measurement method (inches or a percentage of the window size). Set the alignment for a table (left, center, or right), and choose how or if non-table text flows around the table.
Figure 10-25. Setting table properties
- Preferred width. Enter the width the table should be on the page. By default, this option is disabled and the table extends from margin to margin. Set a value in the box to alter the table's width. Entering a zero value disables the option.
- Measure in. By default, table widths are expressed in inches. Alternately, tables can be measured as a percentage of the entire page width.
- Alignment. Align the table to the left, center, or right of the page relative to the page margins.
- Indent from left. If the table is left aligned, use the "Indent from left" to set the distance the table should be from the left margin. This option is not available when center or right alignment is selected.
- Text wrapping. Specify whether a table should use text wrapping or not. When not wrapped, text resumes on the line below the table. When the Around option is set, the text wraps around tables that are less than a full-page width.
- Positioning. The Positioning button becomes available only when the Around text wrapping style is selected and opens a separate dialog used to configure wrapping (Figure 10-26).
Figure 10-26. Setting wrapping options for a table
- Horizontal. Set the horizontal position of the table (left, right, center, inside, or outside) relative to the nearest page, margin, or column.
- Vertical. Set the vertical position of the table (top, center, bottom, inside, or outside) relative to the nearest page, margin, or paragraph.
- Distance from surrounding text. Set the distance between the outside of the table and the text on all four sides of the table.
- Move with text. With this option enabled, moving the text surrounding the table in the document moves the table as well.
- Allow overlap. This option is used mainly for web documents and allows the table to overlap with text or pictures when viewed in a web browser.
Borders and Shading. This button on the Table tab opens the same Borders and Shading dialog available through Format Borders and Shading. This command is covered in Chapter 8.
Options. This button opens a separate dialog (Figure 10-27) used to set optional table parameters.
Figure 10-27. Setting advanced table options
- Default cell margins. Set the margins used by default inside the cells of the table. The margin specifies the distance used between the cell wall and the contents of the cell. This is also sometimes referred to as cell padding.
- Allow spacing between cells. Set the distance used between cells in a table. By default, no spacing is used. Cell spacing is especially useful when creating a table for layout that does not use interior borders. Often the contents of different cells can appear too close together using the default settings.
- Automatically resize to fit contents. Set this option to have Word automatically resize columns to accommodate text and objects. This is the same setting made using Table AutoFit Fit to Contents.
The Row Tab
Use the Row tab (Figure 10-28) to set the height of selected rows, and choose whether rows can break across pages.
Figure 10-28. Setting a specific height for selected rows in a table
- Row x. This identifies the current row by number.
- Specify height. Set the height of the row in inches. Use the "Row height is" list to specify whether the height setting is exact or the minimum height the row should be.
- Allow row to break across pages. Sometimes rows are long. Enable this option to allow a particular row to have an internal page break. Disable it if the row must be on one page.
- Repeat as header row at the top of each page. This option designates the selected rows to be a table heading that is repeated on subsequent pages. This option is only available if the selected rows include the top row of a table. This is the same option set using the Table Heading Rows Repeat command.
- Previous (Next) Row. Use these buttons to move between rows in a table without having to close and reopen the Table Properties dialog.
The Column Tab
Use the Column tab (Figure 10-29) to set the width of selected columns in inches or as percentage of the total page width. Use the Previous Column and Next Column buttons to move between columns without closing the dialog.
Figure 10-29. Setting the width of selected columns
The Cell Tab
Use the Cell tab (Figure 10-30) to set the width for selected cells in inches or as a percentage of the total page width. In addition, choose how text is aligned vertically within the cells: top, center, and bottom. These alignment settings duplicate those found on the Tables and Borders toolbar.
The Options button opens a separate dialog used to adjust the interior margins of the selected cells in inches. These margins override the default cell margins for the table set on the Table tab of the Table Properties dialog. There are also two other settings on the Options dialog:
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