Using SambaBy Robert Eckstein, David Collier-Brown & Peter Kelly
1st Edition October 1999 (est.)
1-56592-449-5, Order Number: 4495
424 pages (est.), $34.95 (est.)
Chapter 5 Browsing and Advanced Disk Shares
In this chapter:
File Permissions and Attributes on MS-DOS and Unix
Locks and Oplocks
This chapter continues our discussion of disk shares from the previous chapter. Here, we will discuss various differences between the Windows and Unix filesystems--and how Samba works to bridge the gap. There are a surprising number of inconsistencies between a DOS filesystem and a Unix filesystem. In addition, we will talk briefly about name mangling, file locking, and a relatively new feature for Samba: opportunistic locking, or oplocks. However, before we move into that territory, we should first discuss the somewhat arcane topic of browsing with Samba.
Browsing is the ability to examine the servers and shares that are currently available on your network. On a Windows NT 4.0 or 95/98 client, a user can browse network servers through the Network Neighborhood folder. By double-clicking the icon representing the server, the user should be able to see the printer and disk share resources available on that machine as well. If you have Windows NT 3.x, you can use the Disk-Connect Network Drive menu in the File Manager to display the available shares on a server. From the Windows command line, you can also use the
viewoption to see which servers are currently on the network.
Here is an example of the
viewcommand in action:
C:\>net view Servers available in workgroup SIMPLE Server name Remark ---------------------------------------------------------- \\CHIMAERA Windows NT 4.0 \\HYDRA Samba 2.0.4 on (hydra) \\PHOENIX Windows 98
You can restrict a share from being in a browse list by using the
browseableoption. This boolean option prevents a share from being seen in the Network Neighborhood at all. For example, to prevent the
[data]share from the previous chapter from being visible, we could write:
[data] path = /home/samba/data browseable = no guest ok = yes comment = Data Drive volume = Sample-Data-Drive writeable = yes
Although you typically don't want to do this to an ordinary disk share, the browseable option is useful in the event that you need to create a share with contents that you do not want others to see, such as a
[netlogin]share for storing logon scripts for Windows domain control (see Chapter 6, Users, Security, and Domains for more information on logon scripts.)
Another example is the
[homes]share. This share is often marked non-browsable so that a share named
[homes]won't appear when its machine's resources are browsed. However, if a user Alice logs on and looks at the machine's shares, an
[alice]share will appear under the machine. What if we wanted to make sure Alice's share appeared to everyone before she logs in? This could be done with the global
servicesoption. This option preloads shares into the browse list to ensure that they are always visible.
[global] ... auto services = alice ...
In the event that a user cannot successfully connect to a share, you can specify a default share that they can connect to. Since you do not know who will default to this share at any time, you will probably want to set the
yesfor this share. Specifying a
servicecan be useful when sending the utterly befuddled to a directory of help files.
[global] ... default service = helpshare ... [helpshare] path = /home/samba/helpshare/%S browseable = yes guest ok = yes comment = Default Share for Unsuccessful Connections volume = Sample-Data-Drive writeable = no
Note that we used the
%Svariable in the
pathoption. If you use the
%Svariable, it will refer to the requested nonexistent share (the original share requested by the user), not the name of the resulting default share. This allows us to create different paths with the names of each server, which can provide more customized help files for users. In addition, any underscores ( _ ) specified in the requested share will be converted to slashes ( / ) when the
%Svariable is used.
As mentioned in Chapter 1, one machine in each subnet always keeps a list of the currently active servers. This list is called the browse list and the server that maintains it is called the local master browser. As machines come on and off the network, the local master browser continually updates the information in the browse list and provides it to any machine that requests it.
A computer becomes a local master browser by holding a browsing election on the local subnet. Browsing elections can be called at any time. Samba can rig a browsing election for a variety of outcomes, including always becoming the local master browser of the subnet or never becoming it. For example, the following options, which we've added to the configuration file from Chapter 4, Disk Shares, will ensure that Samba always wins the election for local master browser no matter which machines are also present.
[global] netbios name = HYDRA server string = Samba %v on (%I) workgroup = SIMPLE # Browsing election options os level = 34 local master = yes # Networking configuration options hosts allow = 192.168.220. 134.213.233. localhost hosts deny = 192.168.220.102 interfaces = 192.168.220.110/255.255.255.0 \ 126.96.36.199/255.255.255.0 # Debug logging information log level = 2 log file = /var/log/samba.log.%m max log size = 50 debug timestamp = yes [data] path = /home/samba/data browseable = yes guest ok = yes comment = Data Drive volume = Sample-Data-Drive writeable = yes hosts deny = 192.168.220.104 192.168.220.105
However, what if we didn't always want to win the election? What if we wanted to yield browsing to a Windows NT Server if present? In order to do that, we need to learn how browsing elections work. As you already know, each machine that takes place in the election must broadcast information about itself. This information includes the following:
- The version of the election protocol used
- The operating system on the machine
- The amount of time the client has been on the network
- The hostname of the client
Here is how the election is decided. Operating systems are assigned a binary value according to their version, as shown in Table 5-1.
Table 5-1: Operating System Values in an Election
Windows NT Server 4.0
Windows NT Server 3.51
Windows NT Workstation 4.0
Windows NT Workstation 3.51
Windows 3.1 for Workgroups
Following that, each computer on the network is assigned a separate value according to its role, as shown in Table 5-2.
Table 5-2: Computer Role Settings in an Election
Primary Domain Controller
Preferred Master Browser
Active Master Browser
Maintaining Server List
Active Backup Browser
Elections are decided in the following order:
- The machine with the highest version of the election protocol will win. (So far, this is meaningless, as all Windows clients have version 1 of the election protocol.)
- The machine with the highest operating system value wins the election.
- If there is a tie, the machine with the setting of Preferred Master Browser (role 8) wins the election.
- If there is still a tie, the client who has been online the longest wins the election.
- And finally, if there is still a tie, the client name that comes first alphabetically wins.
As a result, if you want Samba to take the role of a local master browser, but only if there isn't a Windows NT Server (4.0 or 3.51) on the network, you could change the
levelparameter in the example above to:
os level = 31
This will cause Samba to immediately lose the election to a Windows NT 4.0 Server or a Windows NT 3.5 Server, both of which have a higher operating systems level. On the other hand, if you wanted to decide the local master browser on the basis of the network role, such as which machine is the primary domain controller, you could set the
levelto match the highest type of operating system on the network and let the election protocol fall down to the next level.
How can you can tell if a machine is a local master browser? By using the
nbtstatcommand. Place the NetBIOS name of the machine you wish to check after the
C:\>nbtstat -a hydra NetBIOS Remote Machine Name Table Name Type Status --------------------------------------------- HYDRA <00> UNIQUE Registered HYDRA <03> UNIQUE Registered HYDRA <20> UNIQUE Registered ..__MSBROWSE__.<01> GROUP Registered ECKSTEIN <00> GROUP Registered ECKSTEIN <1D> UNIQUE Registered ECKSTEIN <1E> GROUP Registered MAC Address = 00-00-00-00-00-00
The resource entry that you're looking for is the
.._ _MSBROWSE_ _.<01>. This indicates that the server is currently acting as the local master browser for the current subnet. In addition, if the machine is a Samba server, you can check the Samba nmbd log file for an entry such as:
nmbd/nmbd_become_lmb.c:become_local_master_stage2(406) ***** Samba name server HYDRA is now a local master browser for workgroup SIMPLE on subnet 192.168.220.100 ****
Finally, Windows NT servers serving as primary domain controllers contain a sneak that allows them to assume the role of the local master browser in certain conditions; this is called the preferred master browser bit. Earlier, we mentioned that Samba could set this bit on itself as well. You can enable it with the
# Browsing election options os level = 33 local master = yes preferred master = yes
If the preferred master bit is set, the machine will force a browsing election at startup. Of course, this is needed only if you set the
leveloption to match the Windows NT machine. We recommend that you don't use this option if another machine also has the role of a preferred master, such as an NT server.
Domain Master Browser
In the opening chapter, we mentioned that in order for a Windows workgroup or domain to extend into multiple subnets, one machine would have to take the role of the domain master browser. The domain master browser propagates browse lists across each of the subnets in the workgroup. This works because each local master browser periodically synchronizes its browse list with the domain master browser. During this synchronization, the local master browser passes on any servers that the domain master browser does not have in its browse list, and vice versa. In a perfect world, each local master browser would eventually have the browse list for the entire domain.
Unlike the local master browser, there is no election to determine which machine assume the role of the domain master browser. Instead, the administrator has to set it manually. By Microsoft design, however, the domain master browser and the primary domain controller (PDC) both register a resource type of <1B>, so the roles--and the machines--are inseparable.
If you have a Windows NT server on the network acting as a PDC, we recommend that you do not use Samba to become the domain master browser. The reverse is true as well: if Samba is taking on the responsibilities of a PDC, we recommend making it the domain master browser as well. Although it is possible to split the roles with Samba, this is not a good idea. Using two different machines to serve as the PDC and the domain master browser can cause random errors to occur on a Windows workgroup.
Samba can assume the role of a domain master browser for all subnets in the workgroup with the following option:
# Browsing election options os level = 34 domain master = yes
You can verify that a Samba machine is in fact the domain master browser by checking the nmbd log file:
nmbd/nmbd_become_dmb.c:become_domain_master_stage2(118) ***** Samba name server HYDRA is now a domain master browser for workgroup SIMPLE on subnet 192.168.220.100 *****
Or you can use the nmblookup command that comes with the Samba distribution to query for a unique <1B> resource type in the workgroup:
# nmblookup SIMPLE#1B Sending queries to 192.168.220.255 192.168.220.100 SIMPLE<1b>
There are three rules that you must remember when creating a workgroup/domain that spans more than one subnet:
- You must have either a Windows NT or Samba machine acting as a local master browser on each subnet in the workgroup/domain. (If you have a domain master browser in a subnet, a local master browser is not needed.)
- You must have a Windows NT Server or a Samba machine acting as a domain master browser somewhere in the workgroup.
- Each local master browser must be instructed to synchronize with the domain master browser.
Samba has a few other features in this arena in the event that you don't have or want a domain master browser on your network. Consider the subnets shown in Table 5-1.
Figure 5-1. Multiple subnets with Samba servers
First, a Samba server that is supposed to be a local master browser can use the
announceconfiguration option to make sure that computers in a different subnet are sent broadcast announcements about the server. This has the effect of ensuring that the Samba server appears in the browse lists of a foreign subnet. To achieve this, however, the directed broadcasts must reach the local master browser on the other subnet. Be aware that many routers do not allow directed broadcasts by default; you may have to change this setting on the router for the directed broadcasts to get through to its subnet.
announceoption, list the subnets and the workgroup that should receive the broadcast. For example, to ensure that machines in the 192.168.221 and 192.168.222 subnets and SIMPLE workgroup are sent broadcast information from our Samba server, we could specify the following:
# Browsing election options os level = 34 local master = yes remote announce = 192.168.221.255/SIMPLE \ 192.168.222.255/SIMPLE
In addition, if you are allowed to specify an exact address to send broadcasts to the local master browser on the foreign subnet is guaranteed to have a fixed IP address.
A Samba local master browser can synchronize its browse list directly with another Samba server acting as a local master browser on a different subnet. For example, let's assume that Samba is configured as a local master browser, and Samba local master browsers exist at 192.168.221.130 and 192.168.222.120. We can use the
syncoption to sync directly with the Samba servers, as follows:
# Browsing election options os level = 34 local master = yes remote announce = 192.168.221.255/SIMPLE \ 192.168.222.255/SIMPLE remote browse sync = 192.168.221.130 192.168.222.120
In order for this to work, the other Samba machines must also be local master browser (see above for information on how to determine this.)
Table 5-3 shows nine options that define how Samba handles browsing tasks. We recommend the defaults for a site that prefers to be easy on its users with respect to locating shares and printers.
Table 5-3: Browsing Configuration Options
Sets the operating system that Samba will announce itself as.
Sets the version of the operating system that Samba will announce itself as.
Allows shares to be displayed in list of machine resources.
If yes, Samba will provide a browse list on this server.
auto services (preload)
string (share list)
Sets a list of shares that will always appear in the browse list.
default service (default)
string (share name)
Names a share (service) that will be provided if the client requests a share not listed in smb.conf.
yes, Samba will try to become a master browser on the local subnet.
Enables or disables LAN Manager style host announcements.
Specifies the frequency in seconds that LAN Manager announcements will be made if activated.
preferred master (prefered master)
If yes, Samba will use the preferred master browser bit to attempt to become the local master browser.
If yes, Samba will try to become the main browser master for the workgroup.
Sets the operating system level of Samba in an election for local master browser.
remote browse sync
string (list of IP addresses)
Lists Samba servers to synchronize browse lists with.
string (IP address / workgroup pairs)
Lists subnets and workgroups to send broadcast packets to, allowing Samba to appear to browse lists.
This global configuration option specifies the type of operating system that Samba will announce itself as to other machines on the network. The default value for this option is
N T, which represents a Windows NT operating system. Other possible values are
Win95, which represents a Windows 95 operating system, and
W f Wfor a Windows for Workgroup operating system. You can override the default value with the following:
[global] announce as = Win95
We recommend against changing the default value of this configuration option.
This global option is frequently used with the
asconfiguration option; it specifies the version of the operating system that Samba will announce itself as to other machines on the network. The default value of this options is 4.2, which places itself above the current Windows NT version of 4.0. You can specify a new value with a global entry such as the following:
[global] announce version = 4.3
We recommend against changing the default value of this configuration option.
browseableoption (also spelled
browsable) indicates whether the share referenced should appear in the list of available resources of the machine it resides on. This option is always set to
yesby default. If you wish to prevent the share from being seen in a client's browser, you can reset this option to
Note that this does not prevent someone from accessing the share using other means, such as specifying the UNC location
//server/accountingin Windows Explorer. It only prevents the share from being listed under the machine's resources when being browsed.
You should never need to change this parameter from its default value of
yes. If your Samba server is acting as a local master browser (i.e., it has won the browsing election), you can use the global
listoption to instruct Samba to provide or withhold its browse list to all clients. By default, Samba always provides a browse list. You can withhold this information by specifying the following:
[global] browse list = no
If you disable the browse list, clients cannot browse the names of other machines, their services, and other domains currently available on the network. Note that this won't make any particular machine inaccessible; if someone knows a valid machine name/address and a share on that machine, they can still connect to it explicitly using NET USE or by mapping a drive letter to it using Windows Explorer. It simply prevents information in the browse list from being retrieved by any client that requests it.
servicesoption, which is also called
preload, ensures that shares are always visible in the browse list. One common use for this option is to advertise specific user or printer shares that are created by the
[printers]shares, but are not otherwise browsable.
This option works best with disk shares. If you wish to force each of your system printers (i.e., those listed in the printer capabilities file) into the browse list using this option, we recommend using the
printersoption instead. Any shares listed with the
servicesoption will not be displayed if the
listoption is set to
serviceoption (sometimes called
default) names a "last-ditch share. If set to an existing share name, and a client requests a nonexistent disk or printer share, Samba will attempt to connect the user to the share specified by this option instead. The option is specified as follows:
default service = helpshare
Note that there are no braces surrounding the share name
helpshare, even though the definition of the share later in the Samba configuration file will have braces. Also, if you use the
%Svariable in conjunction with this option, it will represent the requested, nonexistent share, not the default service. Any underscores (
_) specified in the request share will be converted to slashes (
/) when the variable is used. As mentioned earlier, you should specify a pathname with
%Sin it-- rather than a bare
%S--for security reasons.
This global option specifies whether Samba will attempt to become the local master browser for the subnet when it starts up. If this option is set to
yes, Samba will take place in elections. However, setting this option by itself does not guarantee victory. (Other parameters, such as
levelhelp Samba win browsing elections.) If this option is set to
no, Samba will lose all browsing elections, no matter which values are specified by the other configuration options. The default value is
announceoption tells Samba's nmbd whether or not to send LAN Manager host announcements on behalf of the server. These host announcements may be required by older clients, such as IBM's OS/2 operating system. This announcement allows the server to be added to the browse lists of the client. If activated, Samba will announce itself repetitively at the number of seconds specified by the
This configuration option takes the standard boolean values,
false, which engages or disengages LAN Manager announcements, respectively. In addition, there is a third option,
auto, which causes nmbd to passively listen for LAN Manager announcements, but not send any of its own initially. If LAN Manager announcements are detected for another machine on the network, nmbd will start sending its own LAN Manager announcements to ensure that it is visible. You can specify the option as follows:
[global] lm announce = true
The default value is
auto. You probably won't need to change this value from its default.
This option, which is used in conjunction with
announce, indicates the number of seconds that nmbd will wait before repeatedly broadcasting LAN Manager-style announcements. Remember that LAN Manager announcements must be activated in order for this option to be used. The default value is 60 seconds. If you set this value to 0, Samba will not send any LAN Manager host announcements, no matter what the value of the
announceoption. You can reset the value of this option as follows:
[global] lm interval = 90
masteroption requests that Samba use the preferred master bit when performing an election. This gives the server a higher preferred status in the workgroup than other machines at the same operating system level. If you are configuring your Samba machine to become the local master browser, it is wise to set the following value:
[global] preferred master = yes
Otherwise, you should leave it set to its default,
no. Note that if Samba is configured as a preferred master browser, it will force an election when it is first initialized.
levelglobal option dictates the operating system level that Samba will masquerade as during a browser election. If you wish to have Samba win an election and become the master browser, you can set the level to be above the operating system on your network with the highest value. The values are shown in Table 5-1. The default level is 0, which means that Samba will lose all elections. If you wish Samba to will all elections, you can reset its value as follows:
os level = 34
This means that the server will vote for itself 34 times each time an election is called, which ensures a victory.
If Samba is the primary domain controller for your workgroup or NT domain, it should also be the domain master browser. The domain master browser is a special machine that has the NetBIOS resource type <1B> and is used to propagate browse lists to and from each of the local master browsers in individual subnets across the domain. To force Samba to become the domain master browser, set the following in the
[global]section of the smb.conf:
[global] domain master = yes
If you have a Windows NT server on the network acting as a primary domain controller (PDC), we recommend that you do not use Samba to become the domain master browser. The reverse is true as well: if Samba is taking on the responsibilities of a PDC, we recommend making it the domain master browser. Splitting the PDC and the domain master browser will cause unpredictable errors to occur on the network.
remote browse sync
This global option specifies that Samba should synchronize its browse lists with local master browsers in other subnets. However, the synchronization can occur only with other Samba servers, and not with Windows computers. For example, if your Samba server was a master browser on the class-C subnet 192.168.235, and Samba local master browsers existed on other class-C subnets at 192.168.234.92 and 192.168.236.2, you could specify the following:
remote browse sync = 192.168.234.92 192.168.236.2
The Samba server would then directly contact the other machines on the address list and synchronize browse lists. You can also say:
remote browse sync = 192.168.234.255 192.168.236.255
This forces Samba to broadcast queries to determine the IP addresses of the local master browser on each subnet, which it will then synchronize browse lists with. This only works, however, if your router doesn't block directed broadcast requests ending in 255.
Samba servers are capable of providing browse lists to foreign subnets with the
announceoption. This is typically sent to the local master browser of the foreign subnet in question. However, if you do not know the address of the local master browser, you can do the following:
[global] remote announce = 192.168.234.255/ACCOUNTING \ 192.168.236.255/ACCOUNTING
With this, Samba will broadcast host announcements to all machines on subnets 192.168.234 and 192.168.236, which will hopefully reach the local master browser of the subnet.
One of the biggest issues that Samba has to correct for is the difference between Unix and non-Unix filesystems. This includes items such as handling symbolic links, hidden files, and dot files. In addition, file permissions can also be a headache if not accounted for properly. This section describes how to use Samba to make up for some of those annoying differences, and even add some new functionality of its own.
Hiding and Vetoing Files
There are some cases when we need to ensure that a user cannot see or access a file at all. Other times, we don't want to keep a user from accessing a file--we just want to hide it when they view the contents of the directory. On Windows systems, an attribute of files allows them to be hidden from a folder listing. With Unix, the traditional way of hiding files in a directory is to precede them with a dot (.). This prevents items such as configuration files or defaults from being seen when performing an ordinary
lscommand. Keeping a user from accessing a file at all, however, involves working with permissions on files and or directories.
The first option we should discuss is the boolean
files. This option does exactly what it says. When set to true, the option treats files beginning with a period (.) as hidden. If set to false, those files are always shown. The important thing to remember is that the files are only hidden. If the user has chosen to show all hidden files while browsing (e.g., using the Folder Options menu item under the View menu), they will still be able to see the files, as shown in Figure 5-2.
Figure 5-2. Hidden files in the [data] share.
Instead of simply hiding files beginning with a dot, you can also specify a string pattern to Samba for files to hide with the
filesoption. For example, let's assume that we specified the following in our example
[data] path = /home/samba/data browseable = yes guest ok = yes writeable = yes case sensitive = no hide files = /*.java/*README*/
Each entry for this option must begin, end, or be separated from another with a slash ( / ) character, even if there is only one pattern listed. This convention allows spaces to appear in filenames. In this example, the share directory would appear as shown in Figure 5-3. Again, note that we have set the Windows 98 option to view hidden files for the window.
Figure 5-3. Hiding files based on filename patterns.
If we want to prevent users from seeing files at all, we can instead use the
filesoption. This option, which takes the same syntax as the
filesoption, specifies a list of files that should never be seen by the user, instead of simply marked as hidden. For example, let's change the
[data]share to the following:
[data] path = /home/samba/data browseable = yes guest ok = yes writeable = yes case sensitive = no veto files = /*.java/*README*/
The syntax of this option is identical to the
filesconfiguration option: each entry must begin, end, or be separated from another with a slash (
/) character, even if there is only one pattern listed. By doing so, the files
READMEwill simply disappear from the directory, and the user will not be able to access them through SMB.
There is one other question that we need to address. What happens if the user tries to delete a directory that contains vetoed files? This is where the
filesoption comes in. If this boolean option is set to
true, the user is allowed to delete both the regular files and the vetoed files in the directory, and the directory itself will be removed. If the option is set to
false, the user will not be able to delete the vetoed files, and consequently the directory will not be deleted either. From the user's perspective, the directory will appear to be empty, but cannot be removed.
descenddirective specifies a list of directories whose contents Samba should not allow to be visible. Note that we say contents, not the directory itself. Users will be able to enter a directory marked as such, but they are prohibited from descending the directory tree any further--they will always see an empty folder. For example, let's use this option with a more basic form of the share that we defined earlier in the chapter:
[data] path = /home/samba/data browseable = yes guest ok = yes writeable = yes case sensitive = no dont descend = config defaults
In addition, let's assume that the /home/samba/data directory has the following contents:
drwxr-xr-x 6 tom users 1024 Jun 13 09:24 . drwxr-xr-x 8 root root 1024 Jun 10 17:53 .. -rw-r--r-- 2 tom users 1024 Jun 9 11:43 README drwxr-xr-x 3 tom users 1024 Jun 13 09:28 config drwxr-xr-x 3 tom users 1024 Jun 13 09:28 defaults drwxr-xr-x 3 tom users 1024 Jun 13 09:28 market
If the user then connects to the share, he or she would see the directories shown in Figure 5-4. However, the contents of the /config and /defaults directories would appear empty to the user, even if other folders or files existed in them. In addition, users cannot write any data to the folder (which prevents them from creating a file or folder with the same name as one that is already there but invisible). If a user attempts to do so, he or she will receive an "Access Denied" message.
descendis an administrative option, not a security option, and is not a substitute for good file permissions.
Figure 5-4. Contents of the [data] share with dont descend
DOS and NT filesystems don't have symbolic links; Windows 95/98/NT systems approximate this with "shortcuts" instead. Therefore, when a client tries to open a symbolic link on a Samba server share, Samba attempts to follow the link to find the real file and let the client open it, as if he or she were on a Unix machine. If you don't want to allow this, you have the option of setting the
[data] path = /home/samba/data browseable = yes guest ok = yes writeable = yes case sensitive = no follow symlinks = no
You can test this by creating a directory on the Unix server inside the share as the user that you are logging in with. Enter the following commands:
% mkdir test % cat "This is a test" >test.txt % ln -s test.txt "Link to test"
This results in the two files shown in the window in Figure 5-5. Normally, if you click on either one, you will receive a file which has the text "This is a test" inside of it. However, with the
symlinksoption set to no, you should receive an error similar to the dialog in Figure 5-5 if you click on "Link to test."
Figure 5-5. An error dialog trying to follow symbolic links when forbidden by Samba
Finally, let's discuss the
linksoption. This option, if set to
yes, allows the client user to follow symbolic links that point outside the shared directory tree, including files or directories at the other end of the link. For example, let's assume that we modified the
[data]share as follows:
[data] path = /home/samba/data browseable = yes guest ok = yes writeable = yes case sensitive = no follow symlinks = yes wide links = yes
As long as the
symlinksoption is enabled, this will cause Samba to follow all symbolic links outside the current share tree. If we create a file outside the share (for example, in someone's home directory) and then create a link to it in the share as follows:
ln -s ~tom/datafile ./datafile
Then you will be able to open the file in Tom's directory as per the target file's permissions.
Table 5-4 shows a breakdown of the options that we discussed above. We recommend the defaults for most, except those listed in the descriptions below.
Table 5-4: Filesystem Configuration Options
Provides Unix user's full name to client.
string (list of directories)
Indicates a list of directories whose contents Samba should make invisible to clients.
If set to
no, Samba will not honor symbolic links.
If set to
yes, Samba will use a cache for
If set to
yes, Samba will follow symbolic links outside the share.
hide dot files
If set to
yes, treats Unix hidden files as hidden files in Windows.
string (list of files)
List of file patterns to treat as hidden.
string (list of files)
List of file patterns to never show.
delete veto files
If set to
yes, will delete files matched by
veto fileswhen the directory they reside in is deleted.
Some programs require a full username in order to operate. For example, a Windows email program often needs to associate a username with a given real name. If your system password file contains the real names of users in the GCOS field, the
realnameoption instructs Samba to provide this information to clients. Without it, the name of the user will simply be his or her login ID. For example, if your Unix password file contains the following line:
rcollins:/KaBfco47Rer5:500:500:Robert Collins: /home/rcollins:/bin/ksh
And the option in the configuration file is:
[global] unix realname = yes
Then the name Robert Collins will be provided to any client that requests the real name of user
rcollins. You typically don't need to bother with this option.
descendoption can be used to specify various directories that should appear empty to the client. Note that the directory itself will still appear. However, Samba will not show any of the contents of the directory to the client user. This is not a good option to use as a security feature (a user could probably find a way around it); it really is meant only as a convenience to keep client users from browsing into directories that might have sensitive files.
This option, which is discussed in greater detail above, controls whether Samba will follow a symbolic link in the Unix operating system to the target, or if it should return an error to the client user. If the option is set to
yes, the target of the link will be interpreted as the file.
This global option specifies whether Samba should use a local cache for the Unix
getwd()(get current working directory) system call. You can override the default value of
[global] getwd cache = no
Setting this option to
yescan significantly increase the time it takes to resolve the working directory, especially if the
linksoption is set to
no. You should normally not need to alter this option.
This option specifies whether the client user can follow symbolic links that point outside the shared directory tree. This includes any files or directories that are at the other end of the link, as long as the permissions are correct for the user. The default value for this option is
yes. Note that this option will not be honored if the
symlinksoptions is set to
no. Setting this option to
noslows smbd considerably.
filesoption provides one or more directory or filename patterns to Samba. Any file matching this pattern will be treated as a hidden file from the perspective of the client. Note that this simply means that the DOS hidden attribute is set, which may or may not mean that the user can actually see it while browsing.
Each entry in the list must begin, end, or be separated from another entry with a slash (
/) character, even if there is only one pattern listed. This allows spaces to appear in the list. Asterisks can be used as a wildcard to represent zero or more characters. Questions marks (
?) can be used to represent exactly one character. For example:
hide files = /.jav*/README.???/
hide dot files
filesoption hides any files on the server that begin with a dot (.) character, in order to mimic the functionality behind several shell commands that are present on Unix systems. Like
files, those files that begin with a dot have the DOS hidden attribute set, which doesn't necessarily guarantee that a client cannot view them. The default value for this option is set to
More stringent than hidden files is the state provided by the
filesconfiguration option. These are files which Samba won't even admit exist. You cannot list them or open them from the client. In reality, this isn't a trustworthy security option. It is actually a mechanism to keep PC programs from deleting special files, such as ones used to store the resource fork of a Macintosh file on a Unix filesystem. If both Windows and Macs are sharing the same files, this can prevent ill-advised power users from removing file the Mac users need.
The syntax of this option is identical to the
filesconfiguration option: each entry must begin, end, or be separated from another with a slash (/) character, even if there is only one pattern listed. Asterisks can be used as a wildcard to represent zero or more characters. Questions marks (?) can be used to represent exactly one character. For example:
veto files = /*config/*default?/
This option is primarily administrative and is not a substitute for good file permissions.
delete veto files
This option tells Samba to delete vetoed files when a user attempts to delete the directory that they reside in. The default value is
no. This means if a user tries to delete a directory that contains a vetoed file, the file (and the directory) will not be deleted. Instead, the directory will remain and appear to be empty from the perspective of the user. If set to
yes, the directory and the vetoed files will be deleted.
File Permissions and Attributes on MS-DOS and Unix
DOS was never intended to be a multiuser, networked operating system. Unix, on the other hand, was designed that way from the start. Consequently, there are inconsistencies and gaps in coverage between the two filesystems that Samba must not only be aware of, but also provide solutions for. One of the biggest gaps is how Unix and DOS handle permissions with files.
Let's take a look at how Unix assigns permissions. All Unix files have read, write, and execute bits for three classifications of users: owner, group, and world. These permissions can be seen at the extreme left-hand side when a
-alcommand is issued in a Unix directory. For example:
-rwxr--r-- 1 tom users 2014 Apr 13 14:11 access.conf
Windows, on the other hand, has four principal bits that it uses with any file: read-only, system, hidden, and archive. You can view these bits by right-clicking on the file and choosing the Properties menu item. You should see a dialog similar to Figure 5-6.
Figure 5-6. DOS and Windows file properties
Here is the definition of each of those bits:
- The file's contents can be read by a user but cannot be written to.
- This file has a specific purpose required by the operating system.
- This file has been marked to be invisible to the user, unless the operating systems is explicitly set to show it.
- This file has been touched since the last DOS backup has been performed on it.
Note that there is no bit to specify that a file is executable. DOS and Windows NT filesystems identify executable files by giving them the extensions .EXE, .COM, .CMD, or .BAT.
Consequently, there is no use for any of the three Unix executable bits that are present on a file in a Samba disk share. DOS files, however, have their own attributes that need to be preserved when they are stored in a Unix environment: the archive, system, and hidden bits. Samba can preserve these bits by reusing the executable permission bits of the file on the Unix side--if it is instructed to do so. Mapping these bits, however, has an unfortunate side-effect: if a Windows user stores a file in a Samba share, and you view it on Unix with the
-alcommand, some of the executable bits won't mean what you'd expect them to.
Three Samba options decide whether the bits are mapped:
hidden. These options map the archive, system, and hidden attributes to the owner, group, and world execute bits of the file, respectively. You can add these options to the
[data]share, setting each of their values as follows:
[data] path = /home/samba/data browseable = yes guest ok = yes writeable = yes map archive = yes map system = yes map hidden = yes
After that, try creating a file in the share under Unix--such as
hello.java--and change the permissions of the file to be 755. With these Samba options set, you should be able to check the permissions on the Windows side and see that each of the three values has been checked in the Properties dialog box. What about the read-only attribute? By default, Samba 2.0 sets this whenever a file does not have the Unix owner write permission bit set. In other words, you can set this bit by changing the permissions of the file to be 555.
We should warn you that the default value of the
yes, while the other two options have a default value of
no. This is because many programs do not work properly if the archive bit is not stored correctly for DOS and Windows files. The system and hidden attributes, however, are not critical for a program's operation and are left to the discretion of the administrator.
Figure 5-7 summarizes the Unix permission bits and illustrates how Samba maps those bits to DOS attributes. Note that the group read/write and world read/write bits do not directly translate to a DOS attribute, but they still retain their original Unix definitions on the Samba server.
Figure 5-7. How Samba and Unix view the permissions of a file
Samba has several options to help with file creation masks. File creation masks (or umasks) define the permissions a file or directory will receive at the time it is created. In Unix, this means that you can control what permissions a file or directory has when it is created. For files accessed from Windows, this means you can force the read-only, archive, system, and hidden attributes of a file as well.
For example, the following option will force the permissions of a file created by a Windows client to be 744:
[data] path = /home/samba/data browseable = yes guest ok = yes writeable = yes create mask = 744
while this next option will force the permissions of a newly created directory to be 755:
[data] path = /home/samba/data browseable = yes guest ok = yes writeable = yes create mask = 744 directory mask = 755
You can also force various bits to be set with the
modeoptions. These options will perform a logical OR against the file and directory creation masks, ensuring that those bits that are specified will always be set. You would typically set these options globally in order to ensure that group and world read/write permissions have been set appropriately for new files or directories in each share.
In the same spirit, if you wish to explicitly set the Unix user and group of a file that is created on the Windows side, you can use the
groupoptions. For example:
[data] path = /home/samba/data browseable = yes guest ok = yes writeable = yes create mask = 744 directory mask = 755 force user = joe force group = accounting
These options actually assign a static Unix user and group for each connection that is made to a share. However, this occurs after the client authenticates; they does not allow free access to a share. These options are frequently used for their side effects of assigning a specific user and group to each new file or directory that is created in a share. Use these options with discretion.
Finally, one of the capabilities of Unix that DOS lacks is the ability to delete a read-only file from a writable directory. In Unix, if a directory is writable, a read-only file in that directory can still be removed. This could permit you to delete files in any of your directories, even if the file was left by someone else.
DOS filesystems are not designed for multiple users, and so its designers decided that read-only means "protected against accidental change, including deletion" rather than "protected against some other user on a single-user machine." So the designers of DOS prohibited removal of a read-only file. Even today, Windows file systems exhibit the same behavior.
Normally, this is harmless. Windows programs don't try to remove read-only files because they know it's a bad idea. However, a number of source-code control programs--which were first written for Unix--run on Windows and require the ability to delete read-only files. Samba permits this behavior with the
readonlyoption. In order to enable this functionality, set the option to true:
[data] path = /home/samba/data browseable = yes guest ok = yes writeable = yes create mask = 744 directory mask = 755 force user = joe force group = accounting delete readonly = yes
File and Directory Permission Options
The options for file and directory permissions are summarized in Table 5-5; each option is then described in detail.
Table 5-5: File and Directory Permission Options
Preserve DOS archive attribute in user execute bit (0100).
Preserve DOS system attribute in group execute bit (0010).
Preserve DOS hidden attribute in world execute bit (0001).
create mask (create mode)
Sets the permissions for files created by Samba.
directory mask (directory mode)
Sets the permissions for directories created by Samba.
force create mode
Forces the specified permissions (bitwise or) for directories created by Samba.
force directory mode
Forces the specified permissions (bitwise or) for directories created by Samba.
force group (group)
string (group name)
Sets the effective group for a user accessing this share.
string (user name)
Sets the effective username for a user accessing this share.
Allows a user to delete a read-only file from a writable directory.
The argument for this option is an octal number indicating which permission flags are allowed to be set at file creation by a client in a share. The default is 0755, which means the Unix owner can read, write, and optionally execute his or her own files, while members of the user's group and others can only read or execute them. If you need to change it for non-executable files, we recommend 0644, or
rw-r--r--. Keep in mind that the execute bits may be used by the server to map certain DOS file attributes, as described earlier. If you're altering the create mask, those bits have to be part of the create mask as well.
The argument for this option is an octal number indicating which permission flags are to be set at directory creation by a client in a share. The default is 0755, which allows everyone on the Unix side to read and traverse the directories, but allows only you to modify them. We recommend the mask 0750, removing access by world users.
force create mode
This option sets the permission bits that Samba will force to be set when a file permission change is made. It's often used to force group permissions, mentioned previously. It can also be used to preset any of the DOS attributes we mentioned: archive (0100), system (0010), or hidden (0001). This option always takes effect after the
TIP: Many Windows applications rename their data files to datafile.bak and create new ones, thus changing their ownership and permissions so that members of the same Unix group can't edit them. Setting
force create mask = 0660will keep the new file editable by members of the group.
force directory mode
This option sets the permission bits which Samba will force when a directory permission change is made or a directory is created. It's often used to force group permissions, as mentioned previously. This option defaults to 0000, and can be used just like the
modeto add group or other permissions if needed. This option always takes effect after the
This option, sometimes called
group, assigns a static group ID that will be used on all connections to a service after the client has successfully authenticated. This assigns a specific group to each new file or directory created from an SMB client.
useroption assigns a static user ID that will be used on all connections to a service after the client has successfully authenticated. This assigns a specific user to each new file or directory created from an SMB client.
This option allows a user to delete a directory containing a read-only file. By default, DOS and Windows will not allow such an operation. You probably will want to leave this option turned off unless a program needs this capability; many Windows users would be appalled to find that they'd accidentally deleted a file which they had set read-only. In fact, even the Unix
rmcommand will ask users if they really want to override the protection and delete read-only files. It's a good idea to have Samba be at least as cautious.
The DOS archive bit is used to flag that a file has been changed since it was last archived (e.g., backed up with the DOS archive program.) Setting the Samba option
yescauses the DOS archive flag to be mapped to the Unix execute-by-owner (0100) bit. It's generally safe to leave this option on if your Windows users are doing their own backups. If you manage backups centrally (with
smbtar, for example), on the other hand, you won't need this option. Unix lacks the notion of an archive bit entirely. Backup programs typically keep a file that lists what files were backed up on what date, so comparing file modification dates serves the same purpose.
Setting this option to true causes an occasional surprise on Unix when a user notices that a data file is marked as executable, but rarely causes harm. If a user tries to run it, he or she will normally get a string of error messages as the shell tries to execute the first few lines as commands. The reverse is also possible; an executable Unix program looks like it hasn't been backed up recently on Windows. But again, this is rare, and is usually harmless.
The DOS system attribute is used to indicate files that are required by the operating system, and should not be deleted, renamed, moved, or even looked at without special effort. You'd set this option only if you need to store Windows system files on the Unix file server. Executable Unix programs will appear to be non-removable special Windows files when viewed from Windows clients. This may prove mildly inconvenient if you want to move or remove one. For most sites, however, this is fairly harmless.
DOS uses the hidden attribute to indicate that a file should not ordinarily be visible in directory listings. Unix doesn't have such a facility; it's up to individual programs (notably the shell) to decide what to display and what not. Normally you won't have any DOS files that need to be hidden, so the best thing to do is to leave this option turned off.
Setting the Samba option
yescauses the server to map the hidden flag onto the executable-by-others bit (0001). This feature can produce a rather startling effect. Any Unix program which is executable by world seems will vanish when you look for it from a Windows client. If this option is not set, however, and a user attempts to mark a file hidden on a Samba share, it will not work--Samba has no place to store the hidden attribute!
Back in the days of DOS and Windows 3.1, every filename was limited to eight upper-case characters, followed by a dot, and three more uppercase characters. This was known as the 8.3 format, and was a huge nuisance. Windows 95/98, Windows NT, and Unix have since relaxed this problem by allowing many more case-sensitive characters to make up a filename. Table 5-6 shows the current naming state of several popular operating systems.
Table 5-6: Operating System Filename Limitations
File naming rules
DOS 6.22 or below
Eight characters followed by a dot followed by a three-letter extension (8.3 format); case insensitive
Windows 3.1 for Workgroups
Eight characters followed by a dot followed by a three-letter extension (8.3 format); case insensitive
127 characters; case sensitive
127 characters; case sensitive
255 characters; case sensitive
Samba still has to remain backwards compatible with network clients who store files only in the 8.3 format, such as Windows for Workgroups. If a user creates a file on a share called antidisestablishmentarianism.txt, a Windows for Workgroups client couldn't tell it apart from another file in the same directory called antidisease.txt. Like Windows 95/98 and Windows NT, Samba has to employ a special methodology of translating a long filename to an 8.3 filename in such a way that similar filenames will not cause collisions. This is called name mangling, and Samba deals with this in manner that is similar, but not identical to, Windows 95 and its successors.
The Samba Mangling Operation
Here is how Samba mangles a long filename into an 8.3 filename:
- If the original filename does not begin with a dot, up to the first five alphanumeric characters that occur before the last dot (if there is one) are converted to uppercase. These characters are used as the first five characters of the 8.3 mangled filename.
- If the original filename begins with a dot, the dot is removed and up to the first five alphanumeric characters that occur before the last dot (if there is one) are converted to uppercase. These characters are used as the first five characters of the 8.3 mangled filename.
- These characters are immediately followed a special mangling character: by default, a tilde (~), although Samba allows you to change this character.
- The base of the long filename before the last period is hashed into a two-character code; parts of the name after the last dot may be used if necessary. This two character code is appended to the 8.3 filename after the mangling character.
- The first three characters after the last dot (if there is one) of the original filename are converted to uppercase and appended onto the mangled name as the extension. If the original filename began with a dot, three underscores (
_ _ _) are used as the extension instead.
Here are some examples:
virtuosity.dat VIRTU~F1.DAT .htaccess HTACC~U0.___ hello.java HELLO~1F.JAV team.config.txt TEAMC~04.TXT antidisestablishmentarianism.txt ANTID~E3.TXT antidiseast.txt ANTID~9K.TXT
Using these rules will allow Windows for Workgroups to differentiate the two files on behalf of the poor individual who is forced to see the network through the eyes of that operating system. Note that the same long filename should always hash to the same mangled name with Samba; this doesn't always happen with Windows. The downside of this approach is that there can still be collisions; however, the chances are greatly reduced.
You generally want to use the mangling configuration options with only the oldest clients. We recommend doing this without disrupting other clients by adding an
includedirective to the smb.conf file:
[global] include = /ucsr/local/samba/lib/smb.conf.%m
The resolves to smb.conf.WfWg when a Window for Workgroups client attaches. Now you can create a file /usr/local/samba/lib/smb.conf.WfWg which will likely contain these options:
[global] case sensitive = no default case = upper preserve case = no short preserve case = no mangle case = yes mangled names= yes
If you are not using Windows for Workgroups 3.1, then you probably do not need to change any of these options from their defaults.
Representing and resolving filenames
Another item that we should point out is that there is a difference between how an operating system represents a file and how it resolves it. For example, if you've used Windows 95/98/NT, you have likely run across a file called README.TXT. The file is represented by the operating system entirely in uppercase letters. However, if you open an MS-DOS prompt and enter the command
readme.txt, the all-caps file is loaded into the editing program, even though you typed the name in lowercase letters!
This is because the Windows 95/98/NT family of operating systems resolves files in a case-insensitive manner, even though the files are represented it in a case-sensitive manner. Unix-based operating systems, on the other hand, always resolve files in a case-sensitive manner; if you try to edit README.TXT with the command
readme.txt, you will likely be editing the empty buffer of a new file.
Samba allows you to give it more refined instructions on how it should perform name mangling, including those controlling the case sensitivity, the character inserted to form a mangled name, and the ability to manually map filenames from one format to another. These options are shown in Table 5-7.
Table 5-7: Name Mangling Options
If yes, Samba will treat filenames as case-sensitive (Windows doesn't).
enumerated list (upper or lower)
Case to assume as default (only used when preserve case is
yes, keep case the client supplied (i.e., do not convert to
short preserve case
yes, preserve case of 8.3-format names that the client provides.
Mangle a name if it is mixed case.
Mangles long names into
8.3 DOS format.
string (single character)
Gives mangling character.
Number of mangled names to keep on the local mangling stack.
string (list of patterns)
Allows mapping of filenames from one format into another.
This share-level option, which has the obtuse synonym
casesignames, specifies whether Samba should preserve case when resolving filenames in a specific share. The default value for this option is
no, which is how Windows handles case. If clients are using an operating system that takes advantage of case-sensitive filenames, you can set this configuration option to
yesas shown here:
[accounting] case sensitive = yes
Otherwise, we recommend that you leave this option as its default.
caseoption is used with
case. This specifies the default case that Samba will use when it creates a file on one of its shares on behalf of a client. The default case is
lower, which means that newly created files will use the mixed-case names given to them by the client. If you need to, you can override this global option by specifying the following:
[global] default case = upper
If you specify this value, the names of newly created files will be translated into uppercase, and cannot be overridden in a program. We recommend that you use the default value unless you are dealing with a Windows for Workgroups or other 8.3 client, in which case it should be
This option specifies whether a file created by Samba on behalf of the client is created with the case provided by the client operating system, or the case specified by the
caseconfiguration option above. The default value is
yes, which uses the case provided by the client operating system. If it is set to
no,as shown below, then the value of the
caseoption is used.
[global] preserve case = yes
Note that this option does not handle 8.3 file requests sent from the client--see the
caseoption below. You may want to set this option to
yesif applications that create files on the Samba server are sensitive to the case used when creating the file. If you want to force Samba, for example, to mimic the behavior of a Windows NT filesystem, you can set this option to
short preserve case
This option specifies whether an 8.3 filename created by Samba on behalf of the client is created with the default case of the client operating system, or the case specified by the
caseconfiguration option of Samba. The default value is
yes, which uses the case provided by the client operating system. You can let Samba choose the case thtough the
caseoption by setting it as follows:
[global] short preserve case = no
If you want to force Samba to mimic the behavior of a Windows NT filesystem, we recommend setting this option to
This share-level option specifies whether Samba will mangle filenames for 8.3 clients in that share. If the option is set to no, Samba will not mangle the names and (depending on the client), they will either be invisible or appear truncated to those using 8.3 operating systems. The default value is
yes. You can override it per share as follows:
[data] mangled names = no
This option tells Samba whether it should mangle filenames that are not composed entirely of the case specified using the
caseconfiguration option. The default for this option is
no. If you set it to
yes, you should be sure that all clients will be able to handle the mangled filenames that result. You can override it per share as follows:
[data] mangle case = yes
We recommend that you leave this option alone unless you have a well-justified need to change it.
This share-level option specifies the mangling character used when Samba mangles filenames into the 8.3 format. The default character used is a tilde (~). You can reset it to whatever character you wish, for instance:
[data] mangling char = #
Samba maintains a local stack of recently mangled 8.3 filenames; this stack can be used to reverse map mangled filenames back to their original names. This is needed by applications that create and save a file, close it, and need to modify it later. The default number of long filename/mangled filename pairs stored on this stack is 50. However, if you want to cut down on the amount of processor time used to mangle filenames, you can increase the size of the stack to whatever you wish, at the expense of memory and slightly slower file access.
[global] mangled stack = 100
If the default behavior of name mangling is not sufficient, you can give Samba further instructions on how to behave using the
mapoption. This option allows you to specify mapping patterns that can be used before or even in place of name mangling performed by Samba. For example:
[data] mangled map =(*.database *.db) (*.class *.cls)
Here, Samba is instructed to search each file it encounters for characters that match the first pattern specified in the parenthesis and convert them to the modified second pattern in the parenthesis for display on an 8.3 client. This is useful in the event that name mangling converts the filename incorrectly or to a format that the client cannot understand readily.
Locks and Oplocks
Concurrent writes to a single file are not desirable in any operating system. To prevent this, most operating systems use locks to guarantee that only one process can write to a file at a time. Operating systems traditionally lock entire files, although newer ones allow a range of bytes within a file to be locked. If another process attempts to write to a file (or section of one) that is already locked, it will receive an error from the operating system and will have to wait until the lock is released.
Samba supports the standard DOS and NT filesystem locking requests, which allow only one process to write to an entire file on a server at a give time, as well as byte-range locking. In addition, Samba supports a new locking mechanism known in the Windows NT world as opportunistic locking--oplock for short.
Opportunistic locking allows a client to notify the Samba server that it will not only be the exclusive writer of a file, but will also cache its changes to that file on its own machine (and not on the Samba server) in order to speed up file access for that client. When Samba knows that a file has been opportunistically locked by a client, it marks its version as having an opportunistic lock and waits for the client to complete work on the file, at which point it expects the client to send the final changes back to the Samba server for synchronization.
If a second client requests access to that file before the first client has completed working on it, Samba can send an oplock break request to the first client. This tells the client to stop caching its changes and return the current state of the file to the server so that the interrupting client can use it as it sees fit. An opportunistic lock, however, is not a replacement for a standard deny-mode lock. It is not unheard of for the interrupting process to be granted an oplock break only to discover that the original process also has a deny-mode lock on a file as well.
Figure 5-8 illustrates this opportunistic locking process.
Figure 5-8. Opportunistic locking
In terms of locks, we highly recommend using the defaults provided by Samba: standard DOS/Windows locks for compatibility and oplocks for the extra performance that local caching allows. If your operating system can take advantage of oplocks, it should provide significant performance improvements. Unless you have a specific reason for changing any of these options, it's best to leave them as they are.
Unix and Locking
Windows systems cooperate well to avoid overwriting each others' changes. But if a file stored on a Samba system is accessed by a Unix process, this process won't know a thing about Windows oplocks and could easily ride roughshod over a lock. Some Unix systems have been enhanced to understand the Windows oplocks maintained by Samba. Currently the support exists only in SGI Irix 6.5.2f and later; Linux and FreeBSD should soon follow.
If you have a system that understands oplocks, set
yesin the Samba configuration file. That should eliminate conflicts between Unix processes and Windows users. If your system does not support kernel oplocks, you could end up with corrupted data when somebody runs a Unix process that reads or writes a file that Windows users also access.
But Samba provides a rough protection mechanism in the absence of kernel oplocks: the
filesoption. If you can anticipate which Samba files are used by both Windows users and Unix users, set their names in a
filesoption. This will suppress the use of oplocks on matching filenames, which will supress client caching, and let the Windows and Unix programs use system locking or update times to detect competition for the same file. A sample option is:
veto oplock files = /*.dbm/
This option allows both Unix processes and Windows users to edit files ending in the suffix .dbm.
Samba's options for locks and oplocks are given in Table 5-8.
Table 5-8: Locks and Oplocks Configuration Options
If set to
yes, turns on support for DOS-style whole-file locks.
yes, turns on byte-range locks.
yes, denies access to a byte-range file if a range lock exists in it.
yes, turn on local caching of files on the client for this share.
yes, indicates that the kernel supports oplocks.
yes, tells client the lock was obtained, but doesn't actually lock it.
Allows lock requestor to wait for the lock to be granted.
veto oplock files
string (list of filenames)
Does not oplock specified files.
string (fully-qualified pathname)
Sets the location where various Samba files, including locks, are stored.
As specified in Samba makefile
The most primitive locks available to Samba are SMB deny-mode locks, known as share modes, which are employed by programs such as text editors to avoid accidental overwriting of files. For reference, the deny-mode locks are listed in Table 5-9.
Table 5-9: SMB Deny-Mode Locks
Do not deny any other file requests.
Deny all open requests on the current file.
Deny any read-only open requests on the current file.
Deny any write-only open requests on the current file.
If opened for reading, others can read but cannot write to the file. If opened for writing, others cannot open the file at all.
modesparameter is enabled by default. To disable it, use the following command:
[accounting] share modes = no
We highly recommend against disabling the default locking mechanism unless you have a justifiable reason for doing so. Most Windows and DOS applications rely on these locking mechanisms in order to work correctly, and will complain bitterly if this functionality is taken away.
lockingoption can be used to tell Samba to engage or disengage server side byte-range locks on behalf of the client. For the intentional sharing of files, Windows defines both byte-range locks and deny-mode locks. Samba supports both of these types of locks and will ensure the correct behavior of client programs. Samba implements byte-range locks on the server side with normal Unix advisory locks and consequently, will prevent other properly-behaved Unix processes from overwriting a locked byte range.
This option can be specified per share as follows:
[accounting] locking = yes
lockingoption is set to
true, the requestor will be delayed until the holder of either type of lock releases it (or crashes). If, however, the option is set to
false, no byte-range locks will be kept for the files, although requests to lock and unlock files will appear to succeed. The option is set to
yesby default; however, you can turn this option off if you have read-only media.
This option checks every file access for a byte-range lock on the range of bytes being accessed. This is typically not needed if a client adheres to all the locking mechanisms in place. This option is set to
noby default; however, you can reset it per share as follows:
[accounting] strict locking = yes
If this option is set to
yes, mandatory byte-range locks are enforced on the file.
Samba also supports blocking locks, a minor variant of range locks. Here, if the range of bytes is not available, the client specifies an amount of time that it's willing to wait. The server then caches the lock request, periodically checking to see if the file is available. If it is, it notifies the client; if time expires, however, Samba will tell the client that the request has failed. This strategy prevents the client from continually polling to see if the lock is available.
You can set this option per share as follows:
[accounting] blocking locks = yes
When set to
yes, blocking locks will be enforced on the file. If this option is set to
no, Samba behaves as if normal locking mechanisms are in place on the file.
This option enables or disables support for oplocks on the client. The option is enabled by default. However, you can disable it with the following command:
[data] oplocks = no
If you are in an extremely unstable network environment, or you have many clients that cannot take advantage of opportunistic locking, it may be better to shut this Samba feature off. Oplocks should be disabled if you are accessing the same files from both Unix applications (such as vi ) and SMB clients unless you are lucky enough to have an operating system that supports kernel oplocks as discussed later.
Before opportunistic locking was available on Samba, the Samba daemons pretended to allow oplocks via the
oplocksoption. If this option was enabled, all clients were told that the file is available for opportunistic locking, and never warned of simultaneous access. This option is deprecated now that real oplocks are available on Samba.
If a Unix application separate from Samba tries to update a file that Samba has oplocked to a Windows client, it will likely succeed (depending on the operating system) and both Samba and the client will never be aware of it. However, if the local Unix operating system supports it, Samba can warn it of oplocked files, which can suspend the Unix process, notify the client via Samba to write its copy back, and only then allow the open to complete. Essentially, this means that the operating system kernel on the Samba system has the ability to handle oplocks as well as Samba.
You can enable this behavior with the
oplocksoption, as follows:
[global] kernel oplocks = yes
Samba can automatically detect kernel oplocks and use them if present. At the time of this writing, this feature is supported only by SGI Irix 6.5.2f and later. However, Linux and FreeBSD support are expected in the near future. A system without kernel oplocks will allow the Unix process to update the file, but the client programs will notice the change only at a later time, if at all.
veto oplock files
You can provide a list of filenames that are never granted opportunistic locks with the
filesoption. This option can be set either globally or on a per-share basis. For example:
veto oplock files = /*.bat/*.htm/
The value of this option is a series of patterns. Each pattern entry must begin, end, or be separated from another with a slash ( / ) character, even if there is only one pattern listed. Asterisks can be used as a wildcard to represent zero or more characters. Questions marks (?) can be used to represent exactly one character.
We recommend that you disable oplocks on any files that are meant to be updated by Unix, or are intended to be shared by several processes simultaneously.
This option (sometimes called
dir) specifies the location of a directory where Samba will store SMB deny mode lock files used for the
connectionsoption. Samba stores other files in this directory as well, such as browse lists and its shared memory file in the directory. If WINS is enabled, the WINS database is written to this directory as well. The default for this option is specified in the Samba makefile; it is typically /usr/local/samba/var/locks. You can override this location as follows:
[global] lock directory = /usr/local/samba/locks
You typically would not need to override this option, unless you want to move the lock files to a more standardized location, such as /var/spool/locks.
1. The system checkbox will probably be greyed for your file. Don't worry about that--you should still be able to see when the box is checked and when it isn't.
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